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"AND""OR"


MACHIAVELLI'S VIEW OF HUMAN NATURE


In The Prince Niccolo Machiavelli presents a view of governing a
state that is drastically different from that of humanists of his time.
Machiavelli believes the ruling Prince should be the sole authority
determining every aspect of the state and put in effect a policy which
would serve his best interests. These interests were gaining,
maintaining, and expanding his political power.1 His understanding of
human nature was a complete contradiction of what humanists believed and
taught. Machiavelli strongly promoted a secular society and felt
morality was not necessary but in fact stood in the way of an
effectively governed principality.2 Though in come cases Machiavelli's
suggestions seem harsh and immoral one must remember that these views
were derived out of concern Italy's unstable political condition.3

Though humanists of Machiavelli's time believed that an individual
had much to offer to the well being of the state, Machiavelli was quick
to mock human nature. Humanists believed that "An individual only
'grows to maturity- both intellectually and morally- through
participation' in the life of the state."4 Machiavelli generally
distrusted citizens, stating that "...in time of adversity, when the
state is in need of it's citizens there are few to be found."5
Machiavelli further goes on to question the loyalty of the citizens and
advises the Prince that "...because men a wretched creatures who would
not keep their word to you, you need keep your word to them."6 However,
Machiavelli did not feel that a Prince should mistreat the citizens.
This suggestion once again to serve the Prince's best interests.

If a prince can not be both feared and loved, Machiavelli suggests,
it would be better for him to be feared bey the citizens within his own
principality. He makes the generalization that men are, "...ungrateful,
fickle, liars, and deceivers, they shun danger and are greedy for
profit; while you treat them well they are yours."7 He characterizes
men as being self centered and not willing to act in the best interest
of the state,"[and when the prince] is in danger they turn against
[him]."8 Machiavelli reinforces the prince's need to be feared by
stating:

Men worry less about doing an injury to one who makes himself loved
than to one who makes himself feared. The bond of love is one which
men, wretched creatures they are, break when it is to their advantage to
do so; but fear is strengthened by a dread of punishment which is always
effective.9

In order to win honor, Machaivelli suggests that a prince must be
readily willing to deceive the citizens. One way is to "...show his
esteem for talent actively encouraging the able and honouring those who
excel in their professions...so that they can go peaceably about their
business."10 By encouraging citizens to excel at their professions he
would also be encouraging them to "...increase the prosperity of the
their state."11 These measures, though carried out in deception, would
bring the prince honor and trust amongst the citizens, especially those
who were in the best positions to oppose him.

Machiavelli postulates that a prince must also deceive those who
attempt to flatter him.
[In] choosing wise men for his government and allowing those the
freedom to speak the truth to him, and then only concerning matters on
which he asks their opinion, and nothing else. But he should also
question them toughly and listen to what they say; then he should make
up his own mind.12

Since each person will only advice the prince in accord to his own
interests, the prince must act on his own accord. Machiavelli
discourages action to taken otherwise "...since men will always do badly
by [the prince] unless they are forced to be virtuous."13
Machiavelli actively promoted a secular form of politics. He laid
aside the Medieval conception "of the state as a necessary creation for
humankinds spiritual, material, and social well-being."14 In such a
state,"[a] ruler was justified in his exercise of political power only
if it contributed to the common good of the people he served, [and] the
ethical side of a princes activity...ought to [be] based on Christian
moral principles...."15 Machiavelli believed a secular form of
government to be a more realistic type. His views were to the benefit
of the prince, in helping him maintain power rather than to serve to the
well being of the citizens. Machiavelli promoted his belief by stating:
The fact is that a man who wants to act virtuously in every way
necessarily comes to grief among those who are not virtuous. Therefore,
if a prince wants to maintain his rule he must learn not to be so
virtuous, and to make use of this or not according to need.16

Machiavelli's was that, "God does not want to do everything
Himself, and take away from us our free will and our share of glory
which belongs us."17

Having studied and experienced Italy's political situation,
Machiavelli derived these views. He felt that his suggestions would
provide a frame work for a future prince of Italy to bring about
political stability. Machiavelli writes:

Italy is waiting to see who can be the one to heal her wounds, put and
end to the sacking of Lombardy, to extortion in the Kingdom and in
Tuscany, and cleanse those sores which have been festering so long. See
how Italy beseeches God to send someone to save her from those barbarous
cruelties and outrages; see how eager and willing the country is to
follow a banner, if someone will raise it.18

Although Italy had become the center of intellectual, artistic and
cultural development, Machiavelli did not feel these qualities would
help in securing Italy's political future. His opinion was that Italy
required a leader who could have complete control over Italy's citizens
and institutions. One way of maintaining control of was to institute a
secular form of government. This would allow the prince to govern
without being morally bound. Machiavelli's view of human nature was not
in accord to that of humanists who felt that an individual could greatly
contribute to the well being of the society. Machiavelli, however felt
that people generally tended to work for their own best interests and
gave little obligation to the well being of the state. Although
Machiavelli doubted that this form of government could ever be
established it did appear several years after he wrote The Prince.
Machiavelli has become to be regarded as "the founder of modern day,
secular politics."19


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