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Reports & Essays: Literature - Shakespeare


Supernatural in Shakespeare's Plays
In the time of William Shakespeare there was a strong belief in the existence of the supernatural. Thus, the supernatural is a recurring aspect in many of Mr. Shakespeareıs plays. In two such plays, Hamlet and Macbeth, the supernatural is an integral part of the structure of the plot. It provides a catalyst for action, an insight into character, and augments the impact of many key scenes. The supernatural appears to the audience in many varied forms. In Hamlet there appears perhaps the most notable of the supernatural forms, the ghost. However, in Macbeth, not only does a ghost appear but a floating dagger, witches, and prophetic apparitions make appearances. The role of the supernatural is very important in Hamlet and Macbeth. A ghost, appearing in the form of Hamletıs father, makes several appearances in the play. It first appears to the watchmen, Marcellus and Bernardo, along with Horatio near the guardsmens' post. The ghost says nothing to them and is perceived with fear and apprehension, ³It harrows me with fear and wonder². It is not until the appearance of Hamlet that the ghost speaks, and only then after Horatio has expressed his fears about Hamlet following it, ³What if it tempt you toward the flood, my lord, or to the dreadful summit of the cliff². The conversation between the ghost and Hamlet serves as a catalyst for Hamletıs later actions and provides insight into Hamletıs character. The information the ghost reveals incites Hamlet into action against a situation he was already uncomfortable with, and now even more so. Hamlet is not quick to believe the ghost, ³The spirit that I have seen may be a devil... and perhaps out of my weakness and my melancholy..abuses me to damn me², and thus an aspect of Hamletıs character is revealed. Hamlet, having no suspicion of the ghost after the production by the players, encounters the ghost next in his motherıs room. In this scene the ghost makes an appearance to ³whet² Hamletıs ³almost blunted purpose². Hamlet is now convinced of the ghost and he no longer harbors any suspicion. He now listens to it, ³Speak to her, Hamlet². In Hamlet, the supernatural is the guiding force behind Hamlet. The ghost ask Hamlet to seek revenge for the Kingıs death and Hamlet is thus propelled to set into action a series of events that ends in Hamletıs death. The supernatural occurs four times during the course of Macbeth. It occurs in all the appearances of the witches, in the appearance of Banquoıs ghost, in the apparitions with their prophesies, and in the ³air-drawn² dagger that guides Macbeth towards his victim. Of the supernatural phenomenon evident in Macbeth the witches are perhaps the most important. The witches represent Macbethıs evil ambitions. They are the catalyst which unleash Macbethıs evil aspirations. Macbeth believes the witches and wishes to know more about the future so after the banquet he seeks them out at their cave. He wants to know the answers to his questions regardless of whether the consequence be violent and destructive to nature. The witches promise to answer and at Macbethıs choice they add further unnatural ingredients to the cauldron and call up their masters. This is where the prophetic apparitions appear. The first apparition is Macbethıs own head (later to be cut off by Macduff) confirming his fears of Macduff. The second apparition tells Macbeth that he can not be harmed by no one born of woman. This knowledge gives Macbeth a false sense of security because he believes that he cannot be harmed, yet Macduff was not of woman born, his mother was dead and a corpse when Macduff was born. This leads to Macbethıs downfall. A child with a crown on his head, the third apparition, represents Malcolm, Duncanıs son. This apparition also gives Macbeth a false sense of security because of the Birnam Wood prophesy. The appearance of Banquoıs ghost provides insight into Macbethıs character. It shows the level that Macbethıs mind has recessed to. When he sees the ghost he reacts with horror and upsets the guests. Macbeth wonders why murder had taken place many times in the past before it was prevented by law -²statute purged the gentle weal²- and yet the dead are coming back. The final form of the supernatural is the ³air-drawn² dagger which leads Macbeth to his victim. When the dagger appears to him, Macbeth finally becomes victim to the delusions of his fevered brain. The dagger points to Duncanıs room and appears to be covered in blood. The dagger buttresses the impact of this key scene in which Macbeth slays King Duncan. The supernatural is a recurring aspect in many of the plays by William Shakespeare. In Hamlet and Macbeth the supernatural is an integral part of the structure of the plot. In these plays the supernatural provides a catalyst for action by the characters. It supplies insight into the major players and it augments the impact of many key scenes. The supernatural appeals to the audienceıs curiosity of the mysterious and thus strengthens their interest.

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