The collapse of the Soviet Union created 15 new states.
These states over the last 5 years have all struggled with
economic, ethnic, political and territorial problems left
to them by the Soviet empire. Kyrgyzstan, is a former
Soviet Republic (FSR) located in the Central Asia. This
paper will give a statistical representation of the state,
Kyrgyzstan. The statistical data will reflect the basic
geography of the subject country containing population,
size and location.
This miniature report will also contain brief descriptions
of current political and economic situations. Included in
the current information section of this report, is an
outlook for possible near future events concerning both
political stability and economy.
Kyrgyzstan is located in the southern area of the former
Soviet Union. Its boarders are defined by China to the east
(& South), Kazakhstan to the north (& Northwest),
Uzbekistan directly west and Tajikistan to the south (&
Southwest). Kyrgyzstan features 76,641 square miles of
land, which consisted of .9% of the former USSR's
land-mass. The land is primarily used for pastoral
purposes. Only 7% of the farmable land is cultivated.
The population is approximated to be 4,258,000 people (see
Figure A). The Kyrgyzstan populace has experienced a 25.3%
growth in population during the last 12 years (Population
Growth Data from 1979-1991), and a birthrate at 29.1/1000.
Population distribution is 61.9% in rural areas and 38.1%
in urban centers.
City & Population The top 4 cities are:
Bishkek (formally Frunze) ---------- 616,000 (Capitol)
Osh -------------------------------- 213,000
In June of 1990 ethnic violence arose in the city of Oh.
Kyrgyz clashed with Uzbeks resulting in a bloody conflict
which was eventually suppressed by Soviet Interior Ministry
troops. This clash outlined political and economic problems
present in Kyrgyzstan even when the USSR was still
existent. These ethnic clashes in Oh served to cement
political groups who were organizing outside of the
communist party during Perestroika. It also gave voice to
the large economic problems in central Kyrgyzstan.
The "head of state" and leader of the communist party in
Kyrgyzstan was Absamat Masaliev. Masaliev invoked policies
which were rigid and served to enhance the existing social
problems. Because of the decline present in the
government's abilities to meet the expectations of the
populace, the allowances granted by the Perestroika police
and ethnic tensions, communist authority in Kyrgyzstan was
challenged. The communist party's rule came to an end in
October of that same year.
A liberal democratic reform movement had sweeped the
country and Askar Akaev was elected by a coalition vote in
the Supreme Soviet (Legislature of Kyrgyzstan), resulting
in the removal of Masaliev from the Presidency. Askar Akaev
is a liberal politician (former head of the Academy for
Sciences) and represented reform in the form of
privatization and democracy. The transformation of
government from communism to a liberal democracy occurred
smoothly without violent uprisings or revolution. However,
Akaev has opponents on both sides of the political
spectrum. Masaliev, though not the president, is still the
head of the communist party and very powerful. On the
right, the government has to deal with the potential time
bomb of ethnicity and nationalism.
The current political agenda for the reform government
contains these issues: economic stimulation, development of
diplomatic relations with other states, privatization of
property, a language purification issue and environmental
concerns. These issues are all presently being address and
codified in the formation of the new constitution (only
economics, privatization of property and industry and
language are addressed below).
The industrial sector of the Kyrgyzstan economy is
primarily owned by residing Russians in the capital,
Bishkek. This is a point of contention in the on-going
debates of land and industrial privatization between the
nationalists and liberals in Kyrgyzstan. Though Kyrgyzstan
is primarily an agrarian economy, an alarming amount of
tension is present concerning foreign owned industry.
Language purification standards are being debated in the
Kyrgyz Parliament. In the 1950's the Duma passed a number
of resolutions in attempts of transforming Soviet Republic
languages by using a Cyrillic based alphabet. The adoption
of the Cyrillic alphabet fundamentally changed the Central
Asian Turkic based languages. This served in a dual purpose
of dividing the Central Asian peoples by accenting their
language differences and interrupting communication. The
debate argues that old style Kyrgyz is to be re-instated
thus assuring ethnic and lingual identity.
Thus, statistical data has been reproduced to highlight
population allocations and ethnicity. This miniature report
has also discussed pertinent issues from both a historical
analytical perspective and a current political and economic
outlook present in Kyrgyzstan.
The previously stated issues that are currently on the
floor of the Kyrgyz Legislature, describe possible outcomes
which will directly affect the stability of Kyrgyzstan.