When the first settlers came, Canada was all wilderness.
There were no cities, there were no roads, no malls, no
schools, no farms. There was just wilderness, as far as the
eye can see and beyond.
What surrounded them were forests, full of trees, and
hills, which often had many mini forests on the top. At
first, all the settlers found were miles of forest. Then
they found indian villages, where they indians did all of
their work. The indians worked with the land, as in
farming, forestry, etc. Most of their things were made from
things that came from the land.
The first settlers came from Scandinavia and then people
from parts of Europe followed. The settlers were confronted
by a harsh, never before seen land, and many stayed, but
went back. But, when the news of the furs came out, swarms
of people flocked from Europe to get their hands on the
skins of these animals. Initially, they came to find the
Orient and India, but found North America instead. That is
why the first people seen on North America are called
indians, the settlers thought they had found India and
called the natives indians.
When they first settled, the settlers had NOTHING except
what they had brought with them on the boats. They did not
have many weapons, tools, or medical assistance, but the
settlers were strong willed and persistent, and they
survived. Most of the settlers were self reliant, and in
top physical condition. They built small houses to conserve
time, as the winter was coming.
The indians taught the people how to do many things. The
settlers had brought over the concept of farming, and the
indians taught them how to tap maple sugar, farm the new
land, make pemmican, (which is a ground up mixture of beef
and berries) and forms of wilderness survival. (clothes for
the extreme cold, etc.) Pemmican was an important source of
vitamin C in the winter as fruits and vegetables were
scarce in winter, so people relied on pemmican to keep up
their vitamin c. Fresh fruits and vegetables rotted, but
pemmican lasted. Many settlers died of vitamin c deficiency.
The settlers also brought with them the knowledge of tools.
Their tools included axes, spears, assorted knives, and
fire. To conserve space in houses they made a separate
sleeping floor. The carpenter was a major force in helping
the settlers stay alive, as he made many tools as which the
settlers relied on along with the blacksmith. (nails,