William Randolph Hearst
William Randolph Hearst, Sr. founded the Hearst chain of
publications. He developed a style of journalism that was
frequently criticized and labeled as "yellow journalism".
It was sensationalistic, aroused interest, and attracted
Hearst was born in 1863, in San Francisco, California. His
father was George Hearst, a mining magnate and United
States senator. His mother was Phoebe Apperson Hearst, a
philanthropist. Hearst attended Harvard University, where
he served as business manager of the student comic
magazine. In 1885, he was expelled from school for playing
a practical on his professors. His father then gave him the
San Francisco Examiner. Hearst made this newspaper a
Hearst began buying other papers and magazines and finally
owned 25 large dailies. In 1909, he founded the
International News Service to serve them. He introduced the
concept of color comics, Sunday supplement, banner
headlines, and editorial crusading.
In 1903, he ventured into politics and represented New York
in the US House of Representatives until 1904. He also
tried to attain the Democratic nomination for President of
the United States, but was unsuccessful.
Hearst's estate at San Simeon, 175 miles south of San
Francisco, was one of the most lavish private dwellings in
the United States. It included 240,000 acres of land, 50
miles of ocean frontage, four castles, and a priceless art
collection. The main castle and 120 acres of surrounding
land became a California state park in 1958.